Alternative treatments for arthritic conditions
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Alternative therapies for arthritic conditions are inclusive of treatments like acupuncture or magnets, chondrotin or glucosamine. People having arthritis usually suffer with conditions like stress, stiffness, pain, and depression. So it is imperative that there are alternative treatments for arthritis, which will help patients cope with this in a better way and in a healthier manner. If you do not  [...]

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Fighting A Malaria Scrounger

Submitted by on December 9, 2009 – 11:30 amNo Comment




In Science and technology, the various parasites materialize in vital tasks like for several innovations and experiments and other brain storming. One of those    parasites have also stood out and made their own position through out the world by killing many people and creating other serious health issues in the form of malaria, since last so many years. In this age,   where there is a continuation of lots of treatments for this disease, it has made a good medical history and still is hot topic of several experiments.   Many great people say malaria is a consequence of poverty but essentially, it is also reason of poverty and unawareness. Malaria and malaria-type diseases are the bigger blockages in the economic and social development of any country.

What is Malaria?

Malaria is a mosquito borne disease and is very infectious. The disease is mainly caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium. This disease is very well-known in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. This is mostly found in the countries like America, Asia, and Africa. Every year, 300 to 350 millions of cases of malaria is been recognized in the whole world, that kills around one million and most of them are children especially in the south of Sahara in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is a place where ninety percent of malaria death cases are instituted. A malaria parasite enters the body and results in fever, chills and flu-like illness or sickness. If the fever and the other complications do not  get a proper healing the disease can go worsen and can become a reason of death. Many birds, monkeys, and even chimpanzees are also affected by the Parasitic Plasmodium species. These parasites infect the human body with many type of malaria like P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. cynomolgi, P. simiovale, P. brazilianum, P. schwetzi and P. simium.

Causes of malaria:

Malaria occurs because of parasites that are mostly transported by mosquitoes. The parasites are the affiliates of a genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). The disease in the human body is caused byP. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax and P. knowlesi. Among theses, P falciparum is a very-known parasite, which becomes a reason of malaria among 80 percent of people and at times deaths of 90 percent of patients. The state-of-the-art bearer of theses virus are female mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus, whereas the human beings and the other creatures are resultant transporters. The young mosquitoes first consume the parasite through nourishing on a polluted human carrier and then clutches the parasites Plasmodium sporozoites in their salivary glands. In other conditions when a mosquito gets a blood meal from the human body that is infected, it also gets infected. Once entering inside the body, the parasites gametocytes distinguish into male and female and gametes and combine in the raze of the mosquito. When a mosquito bites a human being or takes a blood meal, sporozoites goes inside the bloodstream. Later, it goes into the liver. The parasites infect the liver cells, where they combine to the merozoites and break the liver cells. After that the merozoites pollute the blood cells and grow in ring forms and into trophozoites (a feeding stage), then schizonts (a reproduction stage). The disease explores in human body in two steps one is an exoerythrocytic and the other is terythrocytic phase. If the infection of the malaria is not treated well, it can also result in kidney failure, attacks, mental confusion, coma, and death.

Malaria treatmentSymptoms of Malaria:

if a patient is suffering with malaria, he/she can have flu-like illness, headache, body aches, vomiting, shaking chills, and Nausea. If   not treated well, the patients can get anemia or even jaundice. The signs of jaundice are yellow coloring skin and eyes. The body of a patient start showing the symptoms after 10 days or even 4 weeks. Some times the patient gets the illness after 7 days of the infection and at times, the infection can be seen after 1 year. The P vivax and P ovale type of infectivity can decline if the body has a strong immune system. Some times some parasites can stay inactive in the liver for a longer time, may be till four years after an infected mosquito bites a human being. But suddenly, when the parasites come out and attacks the red blood cells, the person falls sick.

Exams and tests:

The physicians usually do a blood test to see the existence of the malaria parasite in that. The people who are even staying in a place where there is an existence of the malaria parasite in a large number or they are exposed to the mosquitoes or even have flue like illness should go for a blood test. The doctors do a repeat test of blood in every 8 to 12 hours to check the status of malaria parasites in a patient.  An analytical test of urine and stool sample is also conducted. The other tests are of Complete Blood Count (CBC) that looks out whether the patient is anemic or has other type of infections. There is also a blood glucose test to see the amount of sugar or glucose in the body. They also verify the liver functions, whether there are any damages. In the countries like the US, researchers have found some new type of tests that can recognize easily if a person is having malaria. Doctors also conduct genetic tests and other blood tests in some severe type of cases.

Treatments of Malaria:

Malaria is a disease which is found largely and can be easily cured. Usually, doctors give medicines to trim down the fever headaches, body pains and other symptoms and to strengthen   the immune system. Some of the medicines that the doctors prescribe to the patients are Chloroquine , Aralen , Kronofed-A-JR , Novo-Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine , Plaquenil , Quinidine , Sulfonamide antibiotic , Sulfisoxazole , Azo Gantrisin , Azo-Sulfisoxazole , Eryzole , Gantrisin , Gulfasin , Lipo Gantrisin, Novosoxazole , Pediazole , SK-Soxazole , Sulfalar , Apo-Mefloquine, Daraprim etc.

Researches on Malaria:

Many researchers have found new ways to fight with malaria. Such as a research conducted by the University of Toronto has found that every human being does not develop the deadly parasites inside the body if a malaria-affected mosquito has bitten him/her and on the  other part ,  the  disease has a vast affect on the fruition of the human species. The research also portrays that the transformation that occurs in the human genome has always helped human beings to survive with the malaria parasites for 10 to 1000 of years. As soon as the doctors will understand the mechanism of the mutations that are making the human body stronger to fight with the disease, they can find out more ways to prevent or treat the malaria parasites especially in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The people who have enzyme deficiency which is named as pyruvate kinase and is needed for manufacturing energy or those who are the transporters of gene trait for the deficiency can be protected from this fatal illness. The enzymes of the body named as ‘proteases’ that are involved in hemoglobin absorption by malaria parasites, are smart goals to develop some new inhibitors. Some researchers have also found a possibility of using chloroquine and some other antimalarial medicines in a modern way to fight with malaria. The scientists have also realized now the best way to fight with malaria can be the combined methods considering biological, epidemiological and ecological aspects that encourages the disease to be transmitted in a particular. They also try to understand the biology of the mosquito and its effects on the parasite and the human body. Some researchers are also working to identify some new environmentally safe insecticides. They are finding some satellite-based remote-sensing technology to notice the many affects of the climate change on the transmission of malaria, the various changing pattern of malaria allocation and the appearance of the epidemics. By means of molecular biology the scientists are trying to get into new ways of modifying May medicines as long-term move.

Vaccine:

As per as various vaccines are concerned, in the 60s and 70s many irrefutable studies have proved that some of the experimental immunization with weaken malaria parasites can successfully immunize a patient against malaria. But the vaccines can have some negative points like parasites may be secluded from different geographic locations and may have  genetically difference , thus, the vaccines that protects a patient against one geographic detach may not protect against an extra. In addition, theses new types of vaccines are not that economically viable. The protection need both antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immune reactions, thus, identifying the delivery systems and formulations that motivate all the aspects and complications can bring many technical challenges along with. However, a sporozoite vaccine can be a proper protector against the all contagions that are injected inside a human being by a mosquito. A merozoite (blood-stage) vaccine can also safeguard a human being from the infection. A sporozoite vaccine can also be useful to protect the various in those tourists who travel in the parts of the world where there are immense possibilities of malaria. There are also an array of various other vaccines that have been innovated by studying the various stages of parasite. Many researchers have paid attention on the candidate vaccine antigens, which are articulated on the exterior of the parasite or even are caught up in some significant characteristic of the parasite development like for example  the circumsporozoite (CS) protein is the leading surface antigen of the sporozoite stage. This is also believed to interrelate with the receptors on the human liver cell. Many antigens also have been found who are strong participants to strap merozoites in the human red blood cells. A merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), very frequently obtains the protective immunity in rodent and monkey replicas of malaria.

Prevention:

The first and foremost way to prevent malaria is to understand the risk of the disease. One should take all the possible measures to be safe from the mosquito bites. If a person is traveling in the areas where the parasites are energetic, he/she should take preventive medicine. To avoid the mosquito bites one should sleep in a room that are properly monitored. One should spray proper insecticides in the room; one should also use a mosquito net on the bed while sleeping. The areas in and around a house should be kept clean. If there is any place where there is collection of water or any composite that should be either cleaned or an appropriate insecticide should be sprayed over there. Wearing long trousers, long-sleeved clothing and socks are always good for keeping body safe. Many doctors also recommend Mosquito repellent containing diethyl toluamide (DEET) as a bite-prevention treatment. If a person is sleeping outside the room he/she should use insecticide-treated mosquito net around the bed. In the villages, or the areas which are undeveloped, people should aware about the causes and symptoms of malaria. However, many organizations are also working to make aware and help the people around the globe to fight with malaria. Like the Health Protection Agency (HPA) Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention in UK Travelers (ACMP) has released a document named as ‘Guidelines for UK travelers’. This document is based on the existing risk factors and the way to control the malaria in some particular areas. Medicines for Malaria Venture, is also a not-for-profit public-private partnership, which was established in Switzerland in 1999 and is working to reduce the dispute of malaria in disease-endemic countries. The association conveys news of various new, effectual, and inexpensive antimalarial drugs.

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