Alternative treatments for arthritic conditions
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Alternative therapies for arthritic conditions are inclusive of treatments like acupuncture or magnets, chondrotin or glucosamine. People having arthritis usually suffer with conditions like stress, stiffness, pain, and depression. So it is imperative that there are alternative treatments for arthritis, which will help patients cope with this in a better way and in a healthier manner. If you do not  [...]

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Features Of Legionellosis Infectivity

Submitted by on December 4, 2009 – 1:30 pmNo Comment

Water materializes to be most valuable for each and every creature on the earth. Without water there can not be any existence of life in terms of human beings or any other living thing. Conversely, at times, this source of life and satisfaction of several thirsts can be hazardous for many if it is infected with any harmful virus. Water is also the only source of carrying many diseases around the world. Legionellosis is believed to be one of the several diseases that is expanded through water.

What is Legionellosis?

Legionellosis is a type of infection that occurs because of the bacteria named as Legionella pneumophila. Principally, it is a lung infection that can be either mild or severe enough   and at times   can lead to death. The disease has two dissimilar types. One is the Legionnaires’ disease that is also known as ‘Legion Fever’, which is the most serious type of the infection. It results in pneumonia. The second form of the disease is Pontiac fever. This produces a gentle respiratory illness; the fever type is of normal influenza and not pneumonia. Generally, the virus of the disease is a severe type of the infection that causes pneumonia. A patient falls sick   two or ten days after getting the infection. At times, it can be seen after 16 days of getting infected. In the year 1976, an appearance of pneumonia with different symptoms among a large number of people through attending a meeting of the American Legion in the Philadelphia led people to think and find that the disease they were suffering with was Legionellosis. After a couple of year, during many investigations the researchers found that the bacteria they are suffering with were ‘Legionella pneumophila’. In the countries like the US, around 10,000 to 15,000 people suffer with Legionnaires’ disease each year, a report indicates. On the other hand, there are also numbers of people who have the illness but have only mild results or sometimes no infections. The various eruption of Legionnaires’ ailment has established a large number of media attentions. Nevertheless, very often the disease arises in one or two people and not in a sudden outbreak with a large number of people. In general, the eruption arises in the season of summers but the virus can be located in any and every season or year round. Doctors have found that around 5 to 15 percent cases have become incurable. The time or the year, since when the disease was recognized many outbreaks took place that acquired the whole hospitals. Theses outbreaks also encouraged the many researchers to study about the bacteria and the various epidemics of legionellosis. There are around 90 percent patients of legionellosis who have the Legionella pneumophila infections. This virus is a ubiquitous aquatic organism which booms in the temperature between 25 to 45 °C.

Causes of Legionellosis

Legionellosis diseaseThe disease Legionellosis is a very serious variety of Pneumonia. It is caused by the bacteria named Legionella pneumophila and other legionella genus. The germs are born mostly in the freshwater and is found naturally in the environment worldwide. The artificial water systems or the warm damp places are the main founder of the germ. Such as lakes, rivers, creeks, hot springs and other parts of water. They can also be found in the soil and preserving joins. The places that have inadequately maintained water systems, or badly maintained artificial water systems like cooling towers or evaporative condensers that are connected with some industrial cooling , hot or cold water systems in public and private buildings can have easy infections of the virus. These bacteria continue to exist inside the cells in the form of parasites of protozoa and within the biofilms that are developed in the water system. They become the cause of infection in the human body through the infectivity of other human body cells by using a similar way through which it affects the protozoa. L Pneumophila is a type of virus that is very frequently pushed out of the patients and can affect other human body. If a person who is infected by the virus travels with others or the people in or around the hospital where other patients exist, there are possibilities that the fungus can multiply soon. The fungus of the bacteria can spread by inhalation especially if outbreaks occur. The people of any age group can get the infections but generally, it affects the people of middle-age and older persons or the people who are profound smokers.   If a person is suffering with any fundamental illness like AIDS, diabetes, kidney disease, chronic lungs disease or even a heart failure or even the organ transplant recipients have a great risk of getting infected very soon with the disease. Those who do a regular intake of corticosteroids can also have Legionellosis. Mostly, people get the disease through breathing spray from such kind of water source that is polluted with the bacteria. A study has found that the transmission of the disease from one person to other has been seen very rare. If many people use a common source of water contaminated with the virus, there is possibly of outbreaks.

Symptoms of Legionellosis:

The patients who are affected with Legionnaires’ disease generally have the symptoms of cough, chills, and even fever. The cough can be either dry or can also generate sputum. In addition, the sufferer can also have muscles aches, headache, tiredness, a problem of diarrhea and an appetite failure. The people who have Pontiac fever can suffer with general influenza with chills, fever, headaches, or muscle aches but they do not show any serious symptoms of pneumonia. In this case, the patients generally get well within two to five days. This can be a mild illness but can be severe enough sometimes. Many studies have indicated that there are 5 to 30 percent of cases who have become severe. Around   1percent to 20 percent of healthy people have antibodies that demonstrates prior disclosure to the organism or prior infections but small percentages have shown a record of early pneumonia.

Exams and Tests:

The physicians usually diagnose the illness of a patient by monitoring his/her medical history, physical examinations and chest X-rays. After monitoring the medical history and the physical examinations the doctors can soon start with the treatment. In the medical history the doctor see whether the patient or his/her family have any fungal infections or diseases. When it comes for the physical test, the doctors usually do a blood and urine test.  If the symptom seems to be severe, they go for more tests.  The chest X-ray is normally a method to see if there is an existence of the disease. The X-ray shows the type of the organism whether viral, bacterial or fungal which is causing the disease. It also shows the various complications, the current condition of the lungs or if there is a chance of kidney failure, lung cancer or acute bronchitis. The doctors also examine of mucus. Doctors do the detection of Legionella bacteria in sputum; they also try to find out the confirmation of Legionella in the body fluids and to look for Legionella antibodies in the blood once the disease establishes. Many doctors also conduct Legionella Urinary Antigen test for preliminary exposure of the virus. The test provides premature results than the urine and the culture the culture tests.

Treatments of Legionellosis:

The Legionnaires’ disease is treated mainly with antibiotics. The doctors start the treatment as early as possible after the symptoms are seen positive. They prescribe Erythromycin or an associated antibiotic. In situations where the case is severe a second drug, rifampin also been added. The doctors also take up several therapies, for the disease, like for Legionnaires disease (LD), at times they required an elevated level of adequate therapy but for the Pontiac fever, there is no need of any antimicrobial therapy. The patients on whom the therapy is implemented should be kept in a strong consideration. For the patients, who are in shock or has respiratory failure there should be a support therapy. Some specific therapies   also provide antibiotics capsules to support the sufferer to accomplish high intracellular absorption like macrolides, quinolones, ketolides, and tetracyclines. For the children, Azithromycin is a substitute drug. For adults, certain fluoroquinolones like levofloxacin, moxifloxacin are prescribed. Nonetheless, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not permitted fluoroquinolones for the patients who are younger than 18 years. Some of the other alternative medications are doxycycline or trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). In some cases   physician conducts a surgery, but these cases are very rare.


The prevention Legionellosis should be carried through maintaining an accurate hygiene. The bacterium explores through warm stagnant water, thus, there should be a constant sanitization of water pipes, and other water related areas should be kept clean. The areas of hospitals, hotels or the other places where people assemble in a large number should always be reserved clean. Hygiene should always be maintained in the inner and outer parts of the homes. If there is an existence of dew pond or any other place where water is collected, there should be a well-managed arrangement of   sanitation. Various kinds of anti-fungal sprays are also available in the market to be used in the drenched or water related areas to make them free of any virus. Nevertheless, it is not possible to check all the pathogenic microorganisms in all the water systems, an upbeat management and effective control program can always work to noticeably reduce or even remove the factors that allow the bacteria to grow. A frequent hand washing habit, having well-cooked food, and well-boiled drinking water can also be helpful.

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